Léo Borgatta: Diagnosis of the decorative plasters of tombs from the Porta Nocera Necropolis at the archeological site of Pompeii, Italy: Development of a methodological approach Zurück
Sprache: Original   -   Übersetzung
Zusammenfassung: This master thesis focuses on the diagnosis of the decorative plasters of a group of five tombs built during the Julio-Claudian dynasty (27 BC – 57 AC) in the Porta Nocera Necropolis of the ancient city of Pompeii, Italy. Excavated in 1954, these funerary monuments, richly decorated with relief stuccoes, have deteriorated considerably. In response to these invaluable losses for the Roman heritage, various restoration projects have been developed in the past. The latest, known as the Pompeii Sustainable Preservation Project (PSPP), organises summer academies that allow students and young graduates in the field of conservation – restoration to work directly on the conservation of the tombs. Interventions carried out during these academies allowed to prevent many parts of decorative plaster from imminent losses. Nevertheless, in several places, new deterioration phenomena occurred soon after the implementation of the treatments. This indicates that the deterioration mechanisms are still active and that the interventions carried out so far do not sufficiently assure long-term conservation. As past interventions have focused on the symptoms rather than on the causes of deterioration, the author proposes to change track by conducting a thorough diagnosis of decorative plasters that will allow for a better understanding of the deterioration mechanisms. To this end, the author developed a methodological approach that can be used for other objects with similar conservation issues.
The new data collected throughout the diagnostic process have contributed to the rethinking of existing approaches for the future conservation of the tomb’s decorative plasters. This change in the strategy of intervention aims at favouring a mechanical stabilisation of the plasters over interventions carried out so far with grouts. The author suggests to limit the use of restoration mortars by reconsidering the "clamp" method used for centuries in Pompeii to conserve plasters and wall paintings, while replacing the former use of metal with modern materials such as basalt fibres.


Schlagworte: Pompeii, diagnosis, methodology, plaster, stucco, soluble salts, analysis, material properties


0.1 Context of the study
0.2 Plan and methodology
0.2.1 Group of tombs selected for the research
0.2.2 Plan of the thesis
0.3 General introduction on Porta Nocera’s necropolis
0.3.1 History of the necropolis and the tombs
0.3.2 The precarious state of conservation of the tombs of the necropolis: A Roman funerary heritage in peril
0.3.3 History of conservation actions Preventive conservation measures Remedial conservation measures and partial reconstructions

1.1 Location
1.2 Construction techniques and materials
1.2.1 Structures
1.2.2 Preparatory layers and stucco Stucco Arriccio layers
1.3 Previous interventions
1.3.1 Reconstruction
1.3.2 Remedial interventions
1.3.3 Remedial interventions carried out by the PSPP

2.1 Survey of deterioration
2.1.1 Masonry structure
2.1.2 Plaster and stucco
2.1.3 Previous interventions from the PSPP
2.2 Deterioration mechanisms: a methodological approach for the diagnosis
2.2.1 Environmental assessment
2.2.2 Survey of water flow in the necropolis of Porta Nocera
2.2.3 Survey of moisture distribution using moisture measuring devices Selection of the moisture measuring devices Results of the measurements, facade south, tomb EN_14 Results of the measurements, facade north, tomb EN_04 Conclusion on moisture distribution using moisture meter devices
2.2.4 Survey of moisture distribution using passive IR thermography Tomb EN14, south facade Tomb EN04, North facade Conclusion on moisture distribution using Passive Thermography
2.2.5 Building materials and plaster properties Physical properties: determination of porosity and density of the materials by the liquid and immersion method Methodology of the analytical method Results and discussion Water Transport Properties Methodology of In-field measurements Methodology of Laboratory measurements Results and discussion Hydric proprerties Methodology of hydric dilatation according to DIN standard 52450 Calculation method Results and discussion Thermal properties Methodology of thermal dilatation measurements Calculation method Results and discussion Mechanical Properties Methodology of the determination of E-modulus by ultrasonic velocity Results and discussion Sensitivity of materials to environmental factors according to their properties
2.2.6 Soluble salt activity Sampling of salt efflorescence and in-field qualitative analyses Methodology of analyses Results and discussion Sampling of depth profiles in combination with drilling resistance measurements Methodology of sampling and analyses Description of the depth profiles and locations Semi-quantitative salt analyses of depth profile samples Quantitative salt analyses Results Synthesis of the results and discussion Sampling of material surfaces and salt analyses Description of the samples and locations Microscopic observations Methodology of salt analyses and results Synthesis of results and discussion on deterioration mechanisms related to salt activity

3.1 Conclusions
3.2 Conservation measures: rethinking approaches
3.2.1 Defining priorities
3.2.2 Emergency treatments: considering active deterioration mechanisms Reconsidering the “clamp method” Edgings: limitation of the use of mortar
3.2.3 Passive and preventive interventions: focus on maintenance Water infiltrations and sun heat
3.2.4 Monitoring of salt deterioration and further investigations





weitere Angaben:
  • Hochschule: Hochschule der Künste Bern
  • Art der Arbeit:  Masterarbeit
  • Erstprüfer:  Dr. Barbara Beckett
  • Zweitprüfer:  Prof. Monica Martelli Castaldi
  • Abgabedatum:  2020
  • Sprache:  Englisch
  • Seitenzahl:  197
Léo Borgatta
Chemin des épinettes 20
Hochschule der Künste Bern
1007  Vaud
leoborgatta91@[Diesen Teil loeschen]gmail.com

Volltext der Hochschularbeit  Volltext in englisch
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Creative Commons Lizenzvertrag Dieses Werk steht unter einer Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Deutschland Lizenz.
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) 10.5165/hawk-hhg/463

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